Getting customers to say yes
When sales stagnates though you have a superior product that adds value to customers, what can the marketing team do to change the situation? Firstly find the answers to questions such as what was preventing the customers from at least trying out a brand that promised superior performance? Who made the purchase decision and how? Were there gate-keepers in this purchase decision and who were they?
Secondly, devise a marketing plan based on your assessment. If you want to change the mindset of the customer, change the mindset of his influencer. Find out what would make him change his mindset?
So, when you have a superior product that adds value to customers, your marketing team is pushing hard to sell it, and customers seem to accept the product. Yet sales stagnate. What do you do? This was the tricky problem facing Amara Raja Batteries Limited (ARBL). This is what they did to accelerate sales.
Amara Raja Batteries Limited, is the second largest battery manufacturing company in the India . We introduced our Hiway brand of batteries in 2001. We had carved out a significant market share through innovative methods and an unconventional approach. For example, we were the first to introduce branded battery outlets known as Amaron Pit Stops and also the first to market batteries through non traditional battery marketing channels.
Hiway batteries were meant for heavy-duty commercial vehicles and were technologically superior to the existing offerings in the market. The initial acceptance for the product was good and all the major truck manufacturers soon accepted Hiway. Having found acceptance in the original equipment market, OEM, we then turned our attention to users of the trucks, namely the fleet owners.
the market segment
The fleet owner segment in India is highly scattered. It is estimated that there are roughly 800,000 roadworthy trucks and these are owned by a large number of fleet owners spread across the length and width of India . Besides the challenge of communicating with them in multiple languages, the size of the fleet also varies tremendously from small single truck owners to mammoth corporations with more than 1000 trucks offering a wide range of services.
the initial approach
First we approached the fleet owners through the conventional marketing route. Our marketing executives approached the fleet owners and presented the battery and its advantages over the existing offerings. While the truck owners welcomed the marketing executives and listened to their presentations, the conversion rate was extremely low and sales in the after market (the replacement market) were stagnating.
As we probed the reasons for this apparently contradictory behavior of the market segment, the first outline of a possible explanation emerged: That the fleet owners were reluctant to change their choice of battery brands. And as a result, no matter how convincing a case the marketing team presented, the owners were not willing to shift.
Further, on one hand, the market was dominated by the market leader and on the other hand, numerous local players were offering similar batteries at unbeatable prices. The situation seemed almost hopeless. As we considered and evaluated the available options, we singled out customer relationship management, CRM, as a possible route and so SurfGold a CRM and loyalty marketing solutions provider was co-opted into the new initiative.
As we pondered over the reasons for this low acceptance in the after market, we realized that there were several questions for which answers had to be found before thinking of strategy development. Why was the after market not accepting the Hiway brand?, What was preventing the fleet owner from at least trying out a brand that promised superior performance?, Who made the purchase decision and how?, Were there gate-keepers in this purchase decision and who were they?, Why was the channel, which was otherwise successful in selling ARBL brands feeling inadequate in this case?
The team consisting executives from ARBL and SurfGold-then devised a plan of action that consisted three broad categories: market familiarization, strategy development and test marketing, and national rollout.
the market speaks
As a part of the market familiarization exercise, the SurfGold team spread out into four different towns consisting a mix of metros and non-metros, contacting fleet owners, channel partners and automobile electricians. More than 100 interviews were conducted in a span of four weeks. Having completed the interviews, the teams returned to the drawing table to analyze the data for key insights and observable patterns. The survey revealed some interesting insights that we had not taken into consideration earlier.
01 battery purchase is important. but why fix it if it aint broke? In market after market, the fleet owners were saying virtually the same thing. Yes, battery is a critical component of the truck, but the current battery brand was per-forming well and they had not experienced any problems with their current brand choice, so why experiment with a new brand especially when it was more expensive to buy?
As the team dug deeper into the information, it became clear that while battery purchase was important, it was less important compared to the engine, the transmission, the suspension and the starter motor. In short it was accorded the lowest priority in the scheme of things and so the fleet owner’s level of involvement was really low. The team knew from past experience that wherever, the product category receives low priority, the customer would base his purchase decision on the basis of ‘risk minimization’. So it became obvious as to why the fleet owners were not willing to ‘fix a problem that was not broken yet’
The problem now became not how to get an audience with the fleet owner, but ‘how to make a customer reassess his brand choice in a low priority product’. Unless this was done, it was clear that Hiway was not going to get into the consideration set of the fleet owner, through a plain sales pitch. As the team kept searching for clues on how to build relationships with these customers who were scattered across the country, the answer popped up from a statement that the fleet owners were making repeatedly about their own business requirements.
02 what keeps me awake? Downtime: during the course of interviews the fleet owners repeatedly mentioned their worst nightmare: a truck breaking down in the middle of a trip. Every minute of downtime cost the fleet owner in terms of penalties, business and opportunity losses and most importantly it put a question mark on his reliability. And the fleet owners were asking– in multiple languages with varying intensities, but with singular passion– if there was a way, someone could help them reduce their downtime.
Armed with this insight, the team restated the question as: how can we help the fleet owner reduce or contain the downtime on his fleet?’ We developed a downtime map and went to work analyzing the different possible causes and the possible remedies.
After eliminating several factors that could lead to truck downtime, the team closed in on downtime caused due to electrical failures. Here, at long last, seemed to be an area where the customers need and the product’s benefit seemed to be aligning themselves. And thus was born the service called ‘Hiway Free Auto Electrical Audit’. This audit focused on reducing fleet downtime caused due to auto electrical failure.
It consisted of a thorough audit of the entire auto electrical system of a truck. The truck was audited when it returned to the base between trips and the check up was conducted by a trained auto electrician under the guidance of a direct marketing executive. A detailed report covering the various sub-assemblies and their condition was submitted to the fleet owner within two weeks from the date of the audit exercise.
03 brand choice? The auto electrician holds the key: the team also discovered from the market that the ‘risk minimization’ approach adopted by the fleet owner placed the onus of brand choice on the auto electrician. Thus while the fleet owner rarely changed his brand of batteries, he relied heavily on the advice of his trusted auto electrician, whenever the need for battery purchase arose. So the second piece of the puzzle fell into place: if you want to change the mindset of the fleet owner, change the mindset of the influencer.
The team now turned its attention to the second stakeholder in the drama. What role did the auto electrician play in the choice of brand in a battery purchase and what would make him change his mindset? We discovered that, much like the end user, the auto electrician too, was operating from a paradigm of risk minimization. After all his reputation was on the block, and if a new recommendation led to poorer performance, his livelihood was at stake. So, he was sticking to the ‘tried and tested’ brand options. Added to this was the fact that he did not have sufficient information on the Hiway brand of batteries.
04 influencing the influencer: collaboration is the key the team realized that unless the auto electrician was educated and convinced about Hiway, the battle for marketshare would be lost. So, we wove an influencer relationship program into the overall relationship program. The auto electricians were invited to a one day seminar on ‘Trends in auto electrical systems’. Those who attended the seminar were given certificates and also offered an option to conduct the audits. They were also given some tools like multimeters, which would help them, carry out their work more productively.
05 finally results! customer centricity pays: we now organized the field level execution and the program was test marketed in one region for three months. The response from both the stakeholders was so overwhelming that the CRM team decided to roll out the program on a national basis.
The Hiway Relationship Program has now been running for more than fifteen months and more than 25,000 trucks have been audited. More than 3,000 fleet owners have been enrolled into the program and the results – both qualitatively and quantitatively – have been far beyond expectations!
The sales of Hiway batteries have shown a three-fold increase and the impact the program has had on the fleet owners has been tremendous. Far from viewing ARBL as just another battery company wanting to sell its products, the fleet owners now look at ARBL as a partner who shares their concerns; someone who wants to build lasting relationship with them.
The influencers see ARBL as an organization trying to help them stay abreast of the latest developments in their fields. Someone who not only tells them what is new, but also helps them do their work better. And the channel partners? They are laughing all the way to the bank.
The program drove home some simple truths about marketing in general and customer relationship management in particular. As the team that developed and implemented this exercise, we at ARBL and SurfGold believe that the lessons here are:
01 know your customer and address his concerns
02 do not fit a solution around your product, see how your product can fit into an appropriate solution
03 be willing to stretch that extra mile! (even if it means auditing the trucks at 2.00 am on a highway 80 kms from the nearest town!!)
04 involve the stakeholders and address their concerns
05 show a genuine concern for your customer and he will pay you back amply in time
- Dear friends,
A nice article on project execution. The essence of it can be useful in all facet of our day to day activities.
Ramesh Menon (Oct 2006)
An expert guide to successful project execution
From an etymological perspective, ‘execution’ refers to following up on a decision, or transforming an idea into reality. Up to that point, ideas are only dreams. From then on, they become reality, with consequences. The results are up to us.
However, you are in charge and know that you do not have the option of blaming others for their lack of executive skill. You are expected to make it happen yourself – it is your job. Here are a few guidelines that should help increase your chances of success.
Why does execution fail in the first place?
A root cause of failure in execution is simply that it is not taken seriously enough. This lack of focus can manifest itself in a variety of ways, and these tend to accumulate and snowball into chaos.
01 lack of clarity on what has to be executed, starting with the strategy itself.
· new initiatives are not supported by a clear rationale. Even in routine execution, what matters in achieving the expected outcome has been forgotten. There may not even be a clear expected outcome. This lack of clarity in operations can generally be traced back to a strategy that is itself unclear.
· strategies are often expressed in general, sweeping statements, with little attempt to provide actionable directions. As a result, it is unlikely that they can be cascaded down to the level of execution. Local expediency, rather than a clear link to strategy sets the course.
· sometimes, important projects are purposely kept fuzzy so as not to upset anyone. As a result, the project team is let loose in a political minefield, while higher echelons serenely look in another direction.
02 reality a ance a common organizational neurosis, endeavors to make execution almost irrelevant. A ing reality is standard childlike behavior: a tactic used to delay entering the adult world where one has to live with the consequences of one’s actions. But reality a ance is also frequent among adults who try to find shelter in organizations that, indeed, seem to have been designed specially to protect them from reality. This a ance can manifest itself in a variety of ways:
· entertaining fairy tales: fantastic strategies with unrealistic goals, unavailable resources… Here, execution is clearly not on the agenda.
· blaming the rest of the world: the dollar, headquarters, the desperate competition, incompetent team members, all these excuses eliminate accountability for the outcome of the execution.
· hoping for the best: bold sales initiatives not accompanied by the necessary planning to deliver products that work and yield profits. Execution is entrusted to good luck.
· denial: refusing bad news and killing messengers. When this happens, paralysis prevails. The entire energy is focused on entertaining false hopes, leaving no room for any remedial undertaking.
· no accountability: objectives may be consistently missed. It just doesn’t matter. No corrective action is expected.
03 lack of discipline is also an endemic cultural feature of many organizations.
· in some companies, whatever has been decided, the normal course of action is to ignore it. There is even a certain perceived elegance to it. And this behavior is accepted.
· another reason is, like a ing reality, childlike countering. Like a teenager, doing just the opposite of what is expected.
· there is also an urge to change directions and to complicate the process. “We have a better way here… Let’s do it our way…” The aloofness of ‘country club style’ organizations.
· there is no peer pressure to get things done and nobody loses face when matters are not completed. So you are on your own. Working relationships are handled at arm’s length. No one will challenge you and no one will support you. Execution is not a common endeavor.
· hands-off management is hidden in the guise of the latest management theory on governance. The fear of being associated with failure and the obsession with keeping one’s hands clean lead executives to rationalize their withdrawal from execution into a role of remote censor.
· under the pretense of not micromanaging, difficult decisions are a ed, conflicts are forwarded down the hierarchy, and breaking bad news is delegated.
· simple, unadulterated laziness may explain this apparent casualness. Most people suspect execution to be a lot of hard work… so they had better not venture down that route. There are more gratifying lifestyles.
Counter these pervasive organizational and individual tendencies with two non-negotiable rules. Firstly insist on detailed preparation. Even in fast changing contexts, detailed preparation will ensure the necessary homework and preparedness for achieving your ultimate strategic objectives. Secondly apply systematic follow-up. Many managers find this unglamorous. However, the more you do it, the more you will develop a sense of achievement. It must become a lifestyle.
Execution begins with a ten step detailed preparation process
These ten steps are presented in the context of a project. This could be a one-off initiative within the strategy, or simply standard operating execution of the overall strategy. It could be a turnaround, an acquisition, or the deployment of a new business model. Whatever the case, the same detailed preparation is critical. Without it, there is no execution, just improvisation, navigating without a compass.
01 alignment with the strategic roadmap
How your project will contribute to the overall strategic roadmap must be crystal clear. If it is not, each step in the execution plan will be an independent unit without a sense of direction. This will create chaos. The strategic roadmap covers your business model, your execution priorities and your must-wins. Clarity as to where your project fits in the big picture will serve as a reference point that validates this project.
02 defining your project’s specific deliverables
These deliverables must be quantified. Impressionistic improvements are not good enough, simply because ‘what is not measured is not managed’. Qualitative objectives remain subject to interpretation and personal opinions. Quantified objectives, on the other hand, are a prerequisite to interim progress measurement.
03 cascading down to the level of execution
This step consists of identifying all the detailed tasks that have to be performed to execute the project. There is often a tendency to cut corners and hope for the best. The argument that you don’t want to be overwhelmed by details is not valid. Tasks that are not identified don’t magically disappear. They catch up with you at a later stage and you will be unprepared. To make a high number of tasks manageable, they can be regrouped into larger execution building blocks.
For each task, and for each building block, there must again be a quantified deliverable (a cost decrease, a market-share increase, etc). There should also be a person who is accountable, a deadline, an assessment of the required resources, and an assessment of the links dependent on other tasks.
04 verifying the realism of the project versus capabilities
A capability assessment is required at this stage. Can you achieve what you have set out to achieve? Are the know-how, technologies, financial resources, assets and networks to obtain external capabilities available? This will potentially lead to identifying additional tasks: which capabilities do you have and need to foster? Which capabilities do you need to develop, recruit, acquire? How? By when? Which capabilities are simply unrealistic? The detailed execution plan will need to be revised according to your answers to these questions.
05 applying the financial acid test to the project
Many projects are launched without verifying their financial impact. For one thing, accounting systems don’t always allow you to separately identify the costs of a project, particularly when a project is implemented across several business units. The sales growth may look promising, and the gross margin seems in line with expectations, even though the project may end without having generated any shareholder value. Making sure that this does not happen is facing reality.
But that is not all. The most important test is the sensitivity analysis that allows you to identify the key financial performance drivers for your project. Is it more important to stick to the timing of revenues, even if it means overspending, or to contain costs according to budget even if it means being late to market? This is the most effective way of making everyone on the project team aware of what can make or break the execution.
06 putting the project team together
You have no excuse for not having the best possible team. Enrolling, developing and offloading are your responsibility, and you have to assess both technical capabilities and attitudes. The right technical capabilities with the wrong attitudes will be disruptive for the overall effectiveness of your team. To recruit your team, also remember that, in addition to sound business rationale, members of a high performing project team will require higher level, emotion creating reasons for investing the extra effort. This could be pushing frontiers, or just surviving against all odds.
07 aligning personal performance objectives with project objectives
No one can expect a colleague to act against his or her personal interests for an extended period of time. Yet many projects require exactly that. For example, you may try to enroll someone who is measured on sales growth in a project that aims to improve profitability of the product mix.
You must ensure that team members’ individual areas of accountability in the project execution are reflected in their performance objectives. Disruptions may arise from different reporting lines. You have to clarify the consequences of delivering, and of not delivering, with everyone. Establishing this level of transparency will generally attract the best people to your project team.
08 preparing the follow-up plan
Execution follow-through doesn’t receive much attention, nor generate much enthusiasm. This is why you need a plan to support it. Which milestones will be required to measure progress, when, by whom, and with what consequences?
Two types of milestones are shown to be effective. Operational milestone reviews, with the project team, keep execution on track. The ‘all-hands’ milestones, with a wider audience, provide a unique opportunity to show that it can be done, to disseminate best practices, to put high performers in the limelight, and to make what you really mean by ‘execution’ clear to all.
09 preparing the mobilization and communications plan
Beyond the project team, there is a wider network of individuals who, in some way or other, can influence the outcome of the project. This includes the experts, the project sponsors, the resource owners, but also the supporters, opposition, no-sayers and bystanders. It is helpful to determine who is where ahead of time. The mobilization and communications plan is then targeted at the organization at large, but segmented according to the level of support needed from the various groups.
10 preparing your own agenda of execution priorities
Throughout the execution, you will have to relentlessly reinforce what you mean by execution, what you expect to be delivered, and how you expect people to behave. In order to do so effectively, you have to decide on a few non-negotiable expectations ahead of time, think about how you will repeatedly communicate them, and consistently walk the talk.
Making your expectations highly visible and una able in three specific areas is critical:
· execution discipline: make it known that delivering according to plan is not optional. In preparation for the moment of truth, this expectation is signaled through your insistence on numerous details: timeliness, no phones in meetings, no interrupting others and so forth.
· facing reality: make it clear that the worst offense is not doing the wrong thing, but not doing enough, not providing early warnings, and not volunteering solutions. You must confront the hidden agenda and make fact prevail over opinion.
· supportive challenge: making execution a collective responsibility of the team, encouraging team members to challenge each other, to question, while still supporting each other with experience, ideas, suggestions, and resources.
Execution requires your systematic follow-up
Even with the best-prepared execution plans, there is simply no room for automatic pilot. Managers who think that their only role is to make decisions ask “How much time should I spend on follow-up, then?” and are surprised to hear “at least 80 % of your time!
Otherwise, you are just not managing.” Decision making can be shared; follow-up absolutely not. Follow-up is not only checking that projects are on track; it also represents a unique opportunity to develop your people in action. In the way you follow up, you signal what your execution expectations are.
01 you must rigorously monitor the progress of the execution plan, according to the follow-up plan
As soon as you ignore a milestone, you signal that execution is optional. At the operational milestone meetings, you must:
· review each deliverable that each team member has committed to for that date.
· strongly discourage excuses. Make it clear that, instead, you are expecting corrective actions to have already been initiated.
· obtain or provide explicit deadlines for getting back on track:” Show me how and when you will deliver.”
· use the project team to generate improvement opportunities in every area.
· expect team members to be clear on their own performance level, according to what they have committed themselves to.
· systematically apply the agreed consequences to each individual’s performance.
· coach team members as required, both on technical and on behavioral matters. Improving the performance of a team member is often more effective than replacing him/her.
02 you must use every opportunity to reinforce your expectations and to induce execution-related learning, for the team and for the organization at large
At the “all hands” milestone meetings, you must:
· demonstrate progress to the wider audience
· present and discuss best practices
· ensure the wider audience generates ideas and suggestions for improvements
· reinforce the communication on what you consider key strategic priorities and must win battles
· reinforce the communication on what you consider the most effective behavior and modes of operation
· place the high performers in the limelight
03 relentlessly, leveraging every formal and informal opportunity…
· walk the talk, with respect to objectives, discipline, realism, supportive challenges
· show progress-related interest and ask progress-related questions
· ensure behavior and performance have consequences
· use every opportunity to communicate your execution expectations
04 finally, you must protect the space that is required for the project team to succeed
Specifically, you will:
· roll up your sleeves and get your own hands dirty to help the team work its way around problem areas
· ensure that resources are available according to plan
· mobilize organization-wide support for the project
· help the team overcome team difficulties
· maintain the level of enthusiasm and emotional commitment.
when it comes to execution, there is no difference between managing and leading.
In execution, managers who cannot lead are not very useful, and leaders who cannot manage probably don’t offer much leadership. Strong execution leader/managers are likeable persons; they are boringly systematic and disciplined, as a watchmaker. Yet they take people a long way, as visionaries do. They are handicraft masters. The secret is that doing a job well drives them. They stand for the development and progress of their people, rather than saving their own face or personal glory.
Winners Never Quit.
From an old email posted to all Team 1 Members in Oct 2006
The other day somebody sent me a mail which carried this story. Usually in most cases we always see people cribbing about all the hurdles that they have and not making a sincere effort to come out of it. However, the ones who make earnest efforts to overcome them, don’t have time to cry. If we can learn from this story and make a difference to our lives, believe me the world would be a better place to live in. Let us try to inspire others by practicing that what we want others to emulate in their lives.
Winners Never Quit (Author and source of the story is not known)
Get a green Colleague
A plant on your desktop can reduce fatigue symptoms by 30%, absenteeism by 14% and increase productivity by 12%, new studies reveal. Life@work’s shows you how the colour of envy is also the colour of therapy
Keeping a Feng Shui Bamboo plant on your desk for luck is passé. Pot a plant for good health, instead. Several studies point towards the health benefits of a green desktop.
Bonsai benefit: Saumil Patel with his instant rejuvenators”
Saumil Patel, MD, Inega Modeling Management vouches for it
“I keep two Bonsai plants on a shelf, directly above my computer. When my eyes feel tired, I just glance at them; they rejuvenate me almost instantly, relieve me of stress and keep me calm,” says Saumil, who has made foliage part of his office and reception interior.
Recognising the demand for office plants, Bharat Soni, director of Go Green nursery near Panvel, has developed tabletop landscape trees that require minimum maintenance. Companies like ICICI and Reliance have picked up his tabletop landscapes.
Colour therapist Dr Daisy Sha tells you how a plant on your desk helps
“The benefits are many, and the effort involved isn’t too much,” she says. Dr Sha tells you how hues and shapes of plants influence your life, according to Sankhya philosophy.
* Invest in a plant with smooth-edged leaves; this improves workplace relationships. Also recommended for those with a history of heart disease. Pointed/ jagged leaves represent intrusion.
* Since green is also the colour of the heart chakra, being surrounded by foliage attracts love and happiness.
* Plants with flowers indicate fertility. Keep one on your tabletop if you suffer from sexual problems caused by work stress, or your busy lifestyle does not allow you time for intimate relationships.
* The colour green keeps you calm, and soothes tension between colleagues.
* The colour also helps you resolve inner conflict.
Top 9 benefits of green thumbs at work
Dr Kushrav Bajan, consultant physician at Hinduja Hospital , Mahim, says plants have physical and psychological benefits. Here’s why your tabletop should go green:
1. Purifies the air: Plants purify the air by exchanging the carbon dioxide we exhale for oxygen; recent studies also suggest that plants can filter volatile compounds such as benzene from the atmosphere.
2. Negates side effects of modern equipment: Office plants are an inexpensive method of cleansing the air of toxic gases emitted from modern office equipment, for example fax machines, computers and photocopiers. Build-up of these gases can cause headaches and irritation to the eyes.
3. Humidity control: Washington State University research showed that plant transpiration in an office environment creates a humidity level exactly matching the recommended human comfort range of 30% to 60%.
4. Reduces fatigue: A study conducted among workers of the Norwegian State Oil Company revealed that plants reduced health problems, with symptoms of fatigue falling by 30%, and headaches by 20%.
5. Reduces absenteeism: Agricultural University in Oslo , Norway , found that when plants were included in office buildings, the sum of 12 symptoms was 23% lower. This translated into a 14% decrease in absenteeism.
6. Keeps you on your toes: A study conducted by the University of Washington found that in workers in a windowless office, plants brought about a 12% quicker reaction time in computer tasks, and lowered blood pressure levels.
7. Reduce noise levels: Interior plants absorb background noise in buildings, making the environment more comfortable for occupants.
8. Increases energy levels: Plants are a sight for sore eyes, especially for those who spend hours in front of the computer. “This rejuvenates you and improves energy levels,” says Dr Bajan.
9. Boosts productivity: Studies reveal that productivity increases by 12% in the presence of plants. A feeling of being more attentive was also reported.
Cut’n’keep guide to desktop plants
Ramchandra Patil, senior horticulturist at Go Green Nursery, helps you choose
Chlorophytum or Ribbon Grass: This tiny plant releases oxygen better, when compared to other plants. Replace every 3 months.
Table Palm: It’s attractive, low-maintenance and sturdy. The slightly-larger Areca Palm is perfect for a cabin. Palm plants reduce office pollution, symptoms of headaches, nausea and eye problems.
Philodendron or Dumb Cane: Since it is planted as a moss stick plant, the moss keeps the temperature down. Always keep it moist.
Dracaena: Different varieties of this plant grow pink, beige and yellow leaves. It’s pleasing to the eye, and will add colour to your desk.
Syngonium: The leaves of this plant are heart shaped, and are available in colours such as pale green and pink.
Noise reducing plants include Spathiphyllum Wallisii (Peace Lily), Philodendron Scandens (Sweetheart Plant), Ficus Benjamina (Weeping Fig) and Dracaena Marginata (Madagascan Dragon Tree).
Maintenance guide for indoor plants
Water: Indoor plants do not require too much water, but they need to be kept moist at all times. If the soil feels moist, do not water it.
Substitute for sunlight: You can grow almost anything if there is enough artificial light. Make sure the lighting is not too dim. There are a variety of lights that work well on plants, such as incandescent (regular light bulbs) and fluorescent lighting.
Fertilizers: Organic manure should be given twice a year.
Plant container: Clay containers allow roots to breathe and are heavy enough to stabilise large plants, but they are also fragile. Plastic is inexpensive
Welcome to the infinite world of thoughts and ideas. A small spark, some time give rise to large & wild fires. Let your imagination, creativity, writing skills, intelligence freak out. Come on in, and share your views favoring and against, what you see around. Let you and me and every one who surrounds us deal each task with a quality perspective. The touch of you should mean Quality and Positivity, that would bring fear in your critics. Let that be your attitude.
Sincere thanks to Mr. Mohan Ayyar for bringing the suggestion to creat a blog.
Let God’s Grace Prevail,